UPSC (IAS) Prelims 2021: Subject wise Important Current Affairs Topic

UPSC (IAS) Prelims 2021: Subject wise Important Current Affairs Topic: As per the new UPSC Exam Calendar 2021, the UPSC IAS Prelims 2021 exam has been rescheduled for October 10. With such a dynamic and extensive syllabus to study, candidates often feel anxious during their preparation. To make this revision process easier and productive, we have compiled all the important current affairs topic from every subject in this article/ post. 

In IAS Prelims General Studies Paper 1 , questions are asked from various subjects and Current Affairs related to Science & Technology, History, Geography, Polity, Economy, and Environment. As per UPSC IAS Previous Years’ Paper of the past few years, the current affairs section forms the major part of General Studies Paper 1. Going by this trend, it is highly expected that this year as well, questions might be asked on current events of the past year. Considering this, we have compiled below the month-wise important current affairs topic from last one year.


Current Affairs 2021: Yearly Compilation for UPSC IAS | State PSC and other competitive exams:

Current Affairs 2021: Yearly Compilation (Economy) for UPSC IAS | State PSC and other competitive exams

Current Affairs 2021: Yearly Compilation (International Relations) for UPSC IAS | State PSC and other competitive exams

Current Affairs 2021: Yearly Compilation (Environment & Biodiversity) for UPSC IAS | State PSC and other competitive exams

Current Affairs 2021: Yearly Compilation (Science & Technology) for UPSC IAS | State PSC and other competitive exams

Current Affairs 2021: Yearly Compilation (Geography) for UPSC IAS | State PSC and other competitive exams

Current Affairs 2021: Yearly Compilation (Polity) for UPSC IAS | State PSC and other competitive exams


UPSC (IAS) Prelims 2021: Subject wise Important Current Affairs Topic

Science & Technology

Topic 1: Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

Recently, Scientists at Large Hadron Collider, Switzerland discovered a brand new force of nature which might violate the standard laws of physics. The physicists at CERN are under the impression that they have found a situation that the Standard Model would be unable to explain.  The Standard model predicts a particle known as beauty quark must decay into two particles called muons and electrons at about the same rate. However through the recent experiment conducted it violates the rule as it was seen that it actually decays into electrons more often than muons. 

Topic 2: Baikal Gigaton Volume Detector

On March 13, 2021, the Russian scientists launched a deep underwater telescope in Lake Baikal. It is called the Baikal-Gigaton Volume Detector. Purpose of the telescope is to observe neutrinos. It is known as the Baikal-GVD (Gigaton Volume Detector)It’s construction began in the year 2015Its objective is to study the neutrinos in detail to find their source or originThe Baikal- GVD Collaboration includes 9 institutions and organizations from 4 countries namely Czech Republic, Germany, Poland, Slovakia.It is submerged at the depths of 2,500-4,300 feet below Lake BaikalThe instrument has been placed at the southern part of the lake.

Topic 3: Chaff Technology developed by DRDO

Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) has developed Advanced Chaff Technology that would help safeguard Indian Navy ships from enemy missile attacks.   Chaff is a passive expendable electronic counter measure used for protection of the naval ships from enemy’s radar and missile seekers based on radio frequency.  The importance of the discovery is that a very small amount of the chaff material deployed in the air would act as a decoy to deflect the enemy’s missiles from the ships. It would thus provide safety to the ship. At the same time now DRDO has been able to meet futuristic threats from their adversaries. 

Topic 4: The Nambi Effect

Rocketry: The Nambi Effect is a sci-fi biographical movie based on the life of Nambi Narayan. Nambi Narayanan was an ISRO scientist. He was instrumental in development of Vikas engine that was used for the first PSLV that India launched. In the year 1994, he was falsely charged with espionage and was arrested. Defense officials said that the secrets leaked by him pertained to highly confidential flight test data from experiments with rocket and satellite launches. He was arrested and spent 50 days in jail.  The other suspects in the case included ISRO scientist D. Sasikumaran, Russian space agency official K. Chandrasekhar, and ISRO’s contractor S.K. Sharma and two Maldivian women. However, the charges against him were dismissed by the Central Bureau of Investigation, CBI in April of 1966. Later the Supreme Court declared him not guilty and free of all charges.  

Topic 5: Bihar becomes the first Indian state to have two green energy towns 

Rajgir and Bodh Gaya are set to be India’s first fully green energy towns. The towns would begin  getting solar energy through one of its kind renewable energy projects from 2023.  Bihar is equitable with Delhi, Goa and Odisha to supply 24X7 clean round the year through its renewable energy hybrid model. Solar Energy Corporation of India (SECI), a central government PSU has agreed to Bihar’s proposal to feed clean power to both the towns. It would also supply some power to important government installations in Patna like the Governor’s house, chief minister’s house, Patna High Court, Gyan Bhawan, Bihar museum and also Vidyut Bhawan. The state government wishes to use land available in Lakhisarai and Bhagalpur district to construct solar energy plants.The project will get started by June 2023.

Topic 6: Praapti Portal

It is a web portal launched in 2018 by the Ministry of Power. ‘Praapti’ stands for Payment ratification and analysis in power procurement for bringing transparency in invoicing of generators.The power distribution companies are able to clear the invoices and reply to claims raised by the generators on this portalTo rein in errant distribution companies (discoms) that delay payments to power generation companies, the Power Ministry launched this portalAlso as informed by the ministry, the portal will also compare and rank State discoms on outstanding bills and the frequency of clearing them.The portal is updated as and when an invoice is raised by the power generator.

Topic 7: Sankalp se Siddhi

The Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India (TRIFED) under the aegis of the Ministry of Tribal Affairs, GOI has launched the ‘Sankalp se Siddhi’- Village and Digital Connect drive to transform the tribal ecosystem across the country. The main purpose of the drive is to activate the Van Dhan Vikas Kendras (VDVKs) located in the tribal villages. Earlier in 2021, TRIFED under the Ministry of Tribal Affairs launched the Village and Digital Connect initiative. During the course of the initiative, the regional officials of the TRIFED went to the identified villages having a significant tribal population and supervised the implementation of various programmes and initiatives. As quoted by the Ministry of Tribal Affairs, the initiative was successful. 

Topic 8: SUPACE Portal

On April 6, 2021, the Supreme Court of India launched the first AI driven research portal, Supreme Court Portal for Assistance in Court’s Efficiency (SUPACE). It was launched by Justice SA Bobde in presence of Justice Nageswara Rao.  It is a portal through which the Supreme Court intends to leverage machine learning to deal with the amount of data received in the filing of cases. SA Bobde described it as a ‘hybrid system’ and ‘a perfect blend of human intelligence and machine learning’ that does wonder when paired with human intelligence.Justice L Nageswara Rao is the current chairman of SC’s Artificial Intelligence Committee CJI SA Bobde was the first chairman of the Artificial Intelligence Committee.The AI-driven tool is designed to only process information and make it available to the Judges to take a decision. It will not take any part in the decision making.Only the Judges of Delhi and Bombay High Courts dealing with criminal cases would use it on an experimental basis.
Environment & Ecology

Topic 1: Bio-bubble

A bio-bubble is an invisible shield that is used to host sporting events during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. In simple words, it is a safe and secure environment that can only be accessed by a certain set of people who have tested negative for COVID-19 to minimise the risk of transmission of the coronavirus from one person to another during the course of the event. The bio-bubbles were initiated for sporting events such as India’s tour of Australia, IPL, US Open and so on.  The bio-secure environment can be parts of a hotel or stadium and the players are allowed to access only those parts to prevent any physical interaction with the outside world. For instance, at the US Open, the players could only travel from the hotel to the stadium and vice-versa.

Topic 2: India’s first disk-footed bat

A team of scientists have discovered India’s first bat species with disk-shaped sticky feet in Meghalaya. With this discovery, the number of flying mammal in India rose to 130, out of which 66 are found in the Indian state of Meghalaya.  The breakthrough discovery was made by a team of scientists led by Dr. Uttam Saika from the Zoological Survey of India (ZSI), Shillong and scientists from a few  European natural history museums while sampling a bamboo patch in July 2020. The specialized bamboo dwelling bat species, Eudiscopus denticulus, was recorded in Meghalaya’s Lailad village adjacent to Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary, about 1000 km westwards of its known habitat in Myanmar.   
Polity and Governance 

Topic 1: Aahaar Kranti’ Mission

On 13 April 2021, Union Minister for Science and Technology, Earth Sciences and Health and Family Welfare, Dr. Harsh Vardhan launched ‘Aahaar Kranti’ Mission, a join-initiative of Vijnana Bharati (Vibha), ‘Global Indian Scientists and Technocrats’ Forum (GIST), Vigyan Prasar, and Pravasi Bharatiya Academic and Scientific Sampark (PRABHASS). Also, a monthly newsletter ‘Aahaar Kranti’, both in Hindi and English has also been launched and will be published by Vigyan Prasar.  Amid the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, there is a need for a nutritionally balanced diet as a healthy body will be able to fight the novel virus with greater resilience. The initiative aims at spreading awareness about a nutritious diet to every citizen of the country. It has been launched with the motto of ‘Uttam Aahaar- Uttam Vichaar’ or `Good Diet-Good Cognition’. It is designed to address the particular problem being faced by India and the world– hunger and diseases in abundance. 

UPSC (IAS) Prelims 2021: Subject wise Important Current Affairs Topic

[May 2021] Current Affairs MCQs in English and Hindi

[April 2021] Current Affairs MCQs in English and Hindi

[March 2021] Current Affairs MCQs in English and Hindi

[February 2021] Current Affairs MCQs in English and Hindi

[January 2021] Current Affairs MCQs in English and Hindi


Topic 2: Gyanvapi Mosque Dispute and Places of Worship (Special Provisions) Act, 1991

On 8 April 2021, a civil court in Uttar Pradesh directed the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) to conduct a survey at the Gyanvapi mosque in Varanasi to find out whether it was built on the ruins of the temple or not.  The court also directed the UP Government to bear the cost of the survey, having two members of the minority community. The petition was opposed by the Anjuman Intezamia Masjid (AIM), the Gyanvapi Mosque Management Committee.  Places of Worship (Special Provisions) Act, 1991 It is an Act to prohibit the conversion of any place of worship and provide for the maintenance of the religious character of any place of worship as it existed on the 15th August 1947. 

Topic 3: ROPAX Jetty Project

The Ministry of Ports, Shipping and Waterways (MoPSW) has given the approval for the sanction of Rs. 50.30 crores for the development of an all-weather ROPAX Jetty Project on river Dhamra in the Indian state of Odisha under the Sagarmala initiative on 16 April 2021.  1- The ROPAX (Roll-on/Roll-off Passenger) Jetty and allied infrastructure will connect Kaninali in Bhadrak district & Talachua in Kendrapara district, Odisha.  2- The project will include construction of the ROPAX Jetty at Kaninali and Talachua, utility infrastructures such as parking area development, navigational aids and dredging.
Economics

Topic 1: Dogecoin

Dogecoin is a cryptocurrency that was started in 2013 as an internet parody. Bitcoin and Ethereum have surged in value in the previous week. The Dogecoin is based on the Doge meme and was started as a fun alternative to Bitcoin. Its value has risen phenomenally this week too. It’s value has reached 48 million dollars this weekThe digital currency was created in the year 2013 by Billy Markus and Jackson Palmer who were software engineers. They said that dogecoins were faster and a fun alternative to Bitcoin. 
International News

Topic 1: International Intellectual Property Index 2021

IPR are the rights that are given to persons over the creations of their minds. They give the creator an exclusive right over the use of their creation for a defined time period. The rights of the authors of literary and artistic works like books and paintings are protected through copyrights. These are valid for 50 years only.  India has been ranked 40 among the 53 economies on the 9th IP Index.  Types of Intellectual Properties: Copyright Patent Trademark Trade Secret

Topic 2: World’s First Ship Tunnel in Norway

Norway would be building the world’s first ship tunnel. The construction would begin in 2022. It is a 1.06 mile long and 118 feet wide tunnelIt would pass through the mountainous Stadhavet Peninsula in Northwestern Norway.The ship tunnels cost would be around 2.8 billion Norweigian Kroner or 330 million dollars.The depth of the water in the tunnel would be across 12 metres.This tunnel can house bi ships unlike any other tunnel in the world. No other underpass has been built to serve large ships.The tunnel entry would be controlled by traffic light system

Topic 3: Prarambh

The Prarambh Startup International Summit involved the participation of BIMSTEC (Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri lanka, Thailand) nations in the first ever conclave.  The two day summit marked the fifth anniversary of Startup India Initiative.  It also comes as a follow-up of the announcement made by Prime Minister Modi at the fourth BIMSTEC Summit held in Kathmandu. The two-day summit marked the fifth anniversary of the Startup India initiative  More than 25 countries participated in the summit. The largest confluence organized by the government since the launch of the Startup India initiative. 

UPSC (IAS) Prelims 2021: Subject wise Important Current Affairs Topic

Science & Technology

Topic 1: New Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines And Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules 2021

In February 2021, the Government notified Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules 2021.  Basically, these rules require the big Social Media Giants to take down the unlawful content within a specific time frame of being served either a court order or a notice by a government agency. Social media platforms can work in India as per the Government, but they need to follow the Constitution and laws of India. The rules empower the ordinary users of social media by embodying a mechanism for grievance redressal Rules about digital media and OTT focus more on in house and self-regulationThe framework that has been proposed is very progressive

Topic 2: Global Bio-India 2021

The Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare inaugurated the second edition of Global Bio India 2021 in New Delhi through virtual mode.  It demonstrates the strength and opportunities of India’s biotechnology sector at national and international level.  The National Biotech Strategy was also inaugurated and the Virtual Exhibition of Global Bio India on the occasion. Take a look at the tweet below: It is an international congregation of biotechnology. The stakeholders include international bodies, regulatory bodies, Central and State Ministries, SME’s, research institutes, startups etc. The congregation would help India be recognized as an emerging Innovation Hub globally. The organizers for Bio India 2021 were Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science & TechnologyBiotechnology Industry Research Assistance Council (BIRAC) Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) Association of Biotechnology Led Enterprises (ABLE)Invest India

Topic 3: DRDO Skill Development Centre for Fire Safety Training

Rajnath Singh, the Defence Minister of India inaugurated a DRDO Skill Development Centre for Fire Safety Training at Pilakhuwa in UP. The SDC DRDO facility would be helpful in developing trained human resources along with fire safety technology and products that can be used to save life and assets.The facility would be utilised for imparting fire prevention and fire-fighting training to the Fire Service personnel of Indian Armed Forces, DRDO, Ordnance Factories, Coast Guard and defence undertakings.First of its Kind: The facility is first of its kind developed by a Delhi based DRDO Lab called the Centre for Fire, Explosive and Environment Safety. The facility was established in 1992.Armaments Directorate of DRDO manages and administers CFEESThe Skill development facility is spread in a 24 acres area at Pilkhuwa.As per the Govt of India, various trainees from Bhutan, Sri Lanka and other neighbouring countries would also be imparted training at the Centre.

Topic 4: Earth Observation Satellite

India has planned to launch an earth observation satellite that would provide it near real-time images of its borders and will also be helpful in monitoring natural disasters. It was planned to be launched on March 28, 2021. 

GISAT-1 is planned to be sent into space by GSLV-F10 rocket from Sriharikota spaceport located in Andhra Pradesh’s Nellore districtIt is a series of satellites with the first satellites named GISAT 1 and next being GISAT 2. These are earth observatory satellites (EOS-03)The satellite weighs as much as 2268 kilograms It is the first state of the art agile Earth observation satelliteIt would be placed in a Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit by GSLV-F10It would then be positioned in the geostationary orbit which is almost 36000 kilometers above the Earth’s surface over the equator.An onboard propulsion system would be used to do so 

Topic 5: Global Partnership on Artificial Intelligence (GPAI)

The Global Partnership on Artificial Intelligence (GPAI) is a multi-stakeholder initiative. It aims to use the technology to bridge the gap between theory and practice on AI through research and applied activities on AI-related priorities. GPAI is the implementation of the idea developed within the G7, under the Canadian and French presidencies.It was launched in June, 2020.

Topic 6: Deepfake Technology

Deep fakes or deep nudes are computer-generated images and videos. Cybercriminals use AI softwares to superimpose a digital composite (assembling multiple media files to make a final one) onto an existing video, photo or audio. Deep fakes first came into notice in 2017 when a Reddit user posted explicit videos of celebrities. After that several instances have been reported. The technology becomes vulnerable because deep fake images, audio and videos are very realistic and can be used by cybercriminals to spread misinformation to intimidate or blackmail people, seek revenge or commit fraud on social networking and dating sites.
Geography

Topic 1: Space Hurricane spotted over North Pole

A 620-mile-wide swirling mass of plasma was observed rolling for almost 8 hours in the Earth’s upper atmosphere. This is called space hurricane by the scientists. The hurricane was spotted by a team of researchers led by China’s Shandong University. The team noticed an unusual swirling mass of plasma in the Earth’s upper atmosphere, precisely the ionosphere. The phenomenon was similar to the hurricanes on earth, but it rained electrons. The Hurricane spread across a 1000 kilometre area over the north pole and lasted for 8 long hours before it broke and spread. The scientists found the phenomenon by piecing together the data obtained in 2014 from the satellite. The storm took place in August that year.

Topic 2: China’s Polar Silk Road in the Arctic Ocean

China has flagged its interest to take part in building “Polar Silk Road”, raising prospects for the emergence of a new sea routeIt was quoted in the draft outline of the 14th Five-Year Plan (2021-2025)China has revealed that it would be good for national economic and social development and the long-range objectives to the year 2035The route would be starting from Dalian and would cover the whole Pacific Ocean to Arctic Ocean to meet Rotterdam in the Netherlands.Three oceans namely, Pacific, Arctic and the Atlantic Ocean would be covered
Polity & International News

Topic 1: Voice Vote

As per the Rules 252, 253, 254 of the Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in Rajya Sabha, there are various methods for Division in the House. These are: i) Voice Vote- 252 ii) Counting iii) Section 253: Division by automatic vote recorder iv) Section 254: Division by going into the Lobbies  Rule 252:  The Chairman puts up a question at the end of the debate, before the house and invites all those who are in favour of the motion to say ‘Aye’ and those against the motion to say ‘Nay’/ ‘No’.It is based on voice vote and the chairman only would decide to look into any opposition against the bill. In case he decides to address the bill, the members who said Aye or No are respectively asked to rise on their places. No names of the voters are still recorded.  Voice Vote is turning Second House to secondary house: It is evident that Second House does not have many powers. They only have the power to stay the bill till 4 months at maximum. The voice vote has given unattended power to the Chairman of the House which can be misused. 

Topic 2: Draft National Policy on Migrant Workers

NITI Aayog has launched first migrant policy draft. It enables to vote, map skill, interstate teams. There were two approaches put forward by NITI Aayog i) Handout Approach– This means usage of all the facilities provided by the Indian Government to migrants ii) Rights based approach- This approach means the rights must be ensured in all states As per NITI Aayog, the Government’s goal must be to provide a limited approach. This means ‘Don’t give the boy a fish, rather teach him fishing’. The Government must not provide permanent or social aids to migrant workers rather create opportunities for them.  Migration must be acknowledged as a process and integral part of development. Moreover Government policies must be such that they do not hinder migration.

Topic 3: Maitri Setu Bridge between India and Bangladesh

Indian Prime Minister, Narendra Modi has virtually inaugurated Maitri Setu also called as India Bangladesh Friendship Bridge to give a boost to the relationship between the two countries.  About Maitri Setu: The bridge is 1.9 kilometres longIt is built over Feni river and connects Sabroom in south Tripura to Ramgarh in Bangladesh.It was constructed at a cost of INR 133 crore by the National Highways and Infrastructure Development Corporation Limited (NHIDCL)Maitri Setu was inaugurated in June 2017 and the project is fully funded by the central governmentMaitri Setu is the fastest land route to connect the landlocked Northeast region through Sabroom to Chittagong portBangladeshi Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina, in a video message, said, “the inauguration of the 1.9-km- long ‘Maitri Setu’ would herald a new chapter in relations between the two neighbours.”

Topic 4: United Nations Genocide Convention

The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Genocide Convention) is an instrument abiding by the international law which codified the crime of genocide for the first time.  Genocide Convention can be seen as a crucial step towards the making and development of international human rights and international criminal law.  The genocides that have been associated with India are Godhara Riots in 2002 or Sikh Violence in the 1980s among others.  Being colonial laws, IPC and Cr. P C do not include any provisions pertaining to offences by the state. Moreover, both of these laws are not fit to deal with crimes committed by large gatherings of people or mass crimes. What is saddening is that even after decades, the judiciary has failed in its duty and the cases are still getting investigated and recommendations are being made by the committees. 

Topic 5: Medical Termination of Pregnancy (Amendment) Bill 2020

Medical Termination of Pregnancy Amendment Bill 2020 was passed in Lok Sabha recently. The Bill seeks to amend the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971. The Act increases the time period within which an abortion may be carried out.  As per the Act, the pregnancy can be terminated within up to 20 weeks by a married woman in the case of failure of contraceptive method or device. This same Bill also allows unmarried women to terminate her pregnancy for the above mentioned reason.The opinion of a registered medical practitioner is required for termination of pregnancy up to 20 weeks of gestation. Earlier it was for two or more. However, the opinion of two registered medical practitioners would be required for the termination of pregnancy of 20-24 weeks of gestation.Moreover for the pregnancy cases of over 24 months, the state level medical board’s opinion is required for its termination. 
Economics

Topic 1: Operation Green

It was launched initially in 2018 by Late Mr. Arun JaitleyIt is a price fixation scheme that aims to ensure farmers get the right price for the crops they produce. The scheme focuses on organized marketing of tomatoes, onions and potatoes by establishing connections between farmers and consumers. This scheme aims to promote Farmer Producers Organizations, Agri-logistics, processing facilities and professional management of Agri produce. Those that can avail financial assistance under the scheme are State Agriculture and other Marketing Federations, Farmer Producer Organizations (FPO), cooperatives, companies, Self-help groups, food processors, etc. The Finance Minister, Nirmala Sitharaman, while announcing the Union Budget said that Operation Green would be expanded beyond TOP (Tomatoes, Onions, Potatoes), to almost 22 perishable commodities. The commodities are still unknown.

Topic 2: AT1 Bonds 

Government has recently asked Securities and Exchange Board of India to withdraw/ revoke 100 year maturity rule on AT1 Bonds.  AT1 bonds are unsecured bonds with perpetual tenure. These bonds thus do not have any maturity date. They have a call option and can be used by the banks to buy them back from various investors. These bonds are used by the banks so that they can bolster their core capital. AT1 bonds are subordinate to all other debt and only senior to common equity. These bonds give better returns than the rest of the bonds but have no maturity date like other bonds. 

Topic 3: Non Fungible Tokens (NFTs)

Recently a painting has been sold for 69 million dollars but in the form of a Non Fungible Token. The painting has been bought by Meta Kovan.  He would get a token in place of the money he spent. NFT is a class of cryptocurrency that has no standard value but a unique value that is provided for the commodity exchanged against it. NFT can be understood as a digital file whose unique identity and ownership are verified on a blockchain. The blockchain is a kind of a public ledger on which anyone can verify the authenticity of a NFT and check its ownership. 
Environment

Topic 1: New Alpine Plant Species in India

New Alpine Plant Species has been discovered in India. It is called Cremanthodium indicum and it has been observed in Arunachal Pradesh. It is a species of Himalayan Sunflower. The plant species generally flowers from July to August.

Topic 2: New plant species with potential anti-cancer properties

A new species of plants has been found in Assam, India which can prove to be an anticancer. In case this is proved, this would be a great breakthrough for India and the world where Cancer happens to be the second leading cause of death.  Key Details: Ophiorrhiza recurvipetala has been found at 675 metres above the mean sea level. It belongs to same family of plants that yield coffeeRecurvipetala is the name used for plants where the petals are curved backEvery member of this group has a secondary metabolite called Camptothecin used in colon cancerIn India, 47 species and nine varieties of Ophiorrhiza have been recorded Ophiorrhiza recurvipetala is a perennial herb with a maximum height of 60 cm It is branched and bears cream flowersAs per the world checklist of selected plant families, it is a species rich and taxonomically complicated genus. There are almost 318 varieties of this species worldwide. 

UPSC (IAS) Prelims 2021: Subject wise Important Current Affairs Topic

Topic 1: Bare Necessities Index (BNI)

Bare Necessities Index (BNI) based on the large annual household survey data can be constructed using suitable indicators and methodology at the district level for all/targeted districts to assess the progress on access to bare necessities. The BNI summarises 26 indicators on five dimensions viz., water, sanitation, housing, micro-environment, and other facilities. 

Topic 2: Smellicopter Drone

It is an autonomous drone that uses a live antenna from a moth to navigate towards smells. Additionally, it can also sense and avoid obstacles in its way while flying. Researchers have also attached two plastic wings on the back of the drone, to help it fly continuously in the air.

Topic 3: NASA’s Dragonfly Mission

NASA would be sending its rotorcraft Dragonfly to Saturn’s moon Titan in search of the earliest signs of life on Earth. Dragonfly would be going to Titan in search of the origins of life on Earth. It will be launched in 2026 and it would reach Saturn’s moon in 2034.

Topic 4: Blue Jet Lightning

The International Space Station’s Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor- ASIM observatory recently caught a single blue ‘jet’. It is upward-shooting lightning from a thunderstorm cell, along with four elves, (optical and ultraviolet emissions from the bottom of the ionosphere).

Topic 5: Metro-Neo Project

It is a Mass Rapid Transit System (MRTS) that aims to provide a comfortable, rapid, energy-efficient and less noisy transport medium in the city of Nashik. The scheme is introduced to boost the automobile sector, provide stimulus to economic growth, create employment opportunities for the youth and enhance ease of mobility for urban residents.

Topic 6: Vasuki Freight Train: Indian Railways’ longest freight train

South East Central Railway (SECR) zone in Chattisgarh created a record of successfully operating the longest freight train on the Indian Railways network by amalgamating five rakes of goods trains as one unit.  Highlights: 1- The total length of the freight train was around 3.5 kilometres.  2- The freight train was named ‘Vasuki’. 3- The train covered a distance of 224 kilometres from Bhilai D Cabin till Korba which falls under the Bilaspur division in seven hours. 4- The Vasuki train comprised of 300 wagons of long haul rake of five goods trains and was operated by one pilot, one assistant loco pilot and a guard.

Topic 7: Kashmir Resolution

The New York State Assembly has passed a resolution calling on Governor Andrew Cuomo to declare February 5 as Kashmir American Day. India has sharply reacted to the same.  Why February 5th? February 5th is celebrated as Kashmir Solidarity Day or Kashmir Day in Pakistan and a national holiday is observed on the same. The day is observed to show Pakistan’s support towards the people residing in the Indian administered part of Jammu and Kashmir and the efforts of separatists of Kashmir. They also try to show that they pay homage to those who died in such conflicts inflicted upon the area.

Topic 8: Square Kilometre Array (SKA)

Square Kilometre Array observatory is an intergovernmental organisation which is new and dedicated to radio astronomy. It is headquartered in the UK. Currently, organisations from ten countries are a part of the SKAO.    These include  AustraliaCanadaChinaIndiaItalyNew ZealandSouth AfricaSwedenNetherlandsUK

Topic 9: Brookeisa nana – World’s Smallest Reptile found in Madagascar

The smallest species of Reptiles have been discovered by scientists in Madagascar. It is a species of chameleon. “The new chameleon is only known from a degraded montane rainforest in northern Madagascar and might be threatened by extinction,” as per the Scientific Reports journal. The length of the chameleon is 22 mm that is 0.86 inches in all.

Topic 10: India’s first Geothermal Energy Power Plant Project 

India is going to get its first geothermal power project in Ladakh. On February 7, 2021, an agreement for establishing the first geothermal Power Project was announced.  It would help it tap the potential of natural geysers touching the Puga area which happens to be 170 km east of Leh.  The project would be undertaken by ONGC.  Potential Geothermal Reservoirs in India: Puga- LadakhTatapani- ChhattisgarhGodavari Manikaran- Himachal PradeshBakreshwar- West BengalTuwa- GujaratUnai- MaharashtraJalgaon- MaharashtraRajgor and Munger- Bihar

Topic 11: E-Yuva Scheme by BIRAC

Empowering Youth for Undertaking Value Added Innovative Translational Research (E-Yuva) is a scheme by Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance Council (BIRAC) to promote applied research and need-oriented entrepreneurial innovation among young students and researchers. E-Yuva provides funding support, technical and business mentoring, orientation to an entrepreneurial culture and so forth to students at various levels.

Topic 12: Tianwen-1 – China’s first successful Mars mission

China’s first ever mission to another planet has been successful this year. The Tianwen-1 spacecraft has made a close approach to Mars and sent back pictures from the red planet. It would be soon landing in the Red Planet and studying its surface and climate.  Tianwen-1 arrived at Mars on Wednesday, February 10, 2021The mission was launched on July 23, 2020The rover is not expected to land until May or June, 2021

Topic 13: SteroStet – India’s first stethoscope sterilizer

SteroStet is a device that effectively sterilizes a stethoscope diaphragm without using any chemicals or liquids and preserves the longevity of the expensive medical apparatus. XECH is India’s emerging innovator brand which has launched Xech Sterostet. This is one of its kind, India’s first Stethoscope Sterilizer. The machine which uses a special UV-C GI Technology to sterilize stethoscopes diaphragms of all sizes. The purity level is 99.99%. 

Topic 14: Development Finance Institution (DFI)

India will set up a new Development Finance Institution (DFI) called the National Bank for Financing Infrastructure and Development to cater to the wholesale and long-term financing needs of India and possibly fill the gap in long-term financing. The DFI will be set up on a capital base of Rs. 20,000 crores and will have a lending target of Rs. 5 lakh crore in three years. Debt financing through the infrastructure investment trust (InvIT) and real estate investment trust (REIT) routes will be enabled through necessary amendments in the rules.

Topic 15: National Marine Turtle Action Plan

The Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change has released the Marine MegaFauna Stranding Guidelines and National Marine Turtle Action Plan. India is rich in Marine Biodiversity spread across a vast coastline of 7500 kilometres.

Topic 16: Digital Intelligence Unit (DIU)

The government is planning to set up a nodal agency called Digital Intelligence Unit (DIU) to work with law enforcement agencies, financial institutions, and telecom service providers for investigating fraudulent activities involving telecom resources. The government is planning to set up a nodal agency called Digital Intelligence Unit (DIU) to work with law enforcement agencies, financial institutions, and telecom service providers for investigating fraudulent activities involving telecom resources. 

Topic 17: Major Port Authorities Bill 2020

Rajya Sabha passed the Major Port Authorities Bill 2020 on 10 February 2020 that now requires the assent of the President of India to become an Act. It will replace the Major Port Trusts Act of 1963. The aforementioned Bill now requires the assent of the President of India to become an Act. It is to be noted that 84 members voted in favour of the Bill while 44 members voted against Bill. 

Topic 18: Carbon Watch- India’s first Mobile App to assess individual carbon footprint

Chandigarh has become the first place in India to launch the Carbon Watch. It is a mobile application used to assess the carbon footprint generated by any individual.  The application can be used by anyone and everyone but has specific features for the residents of Chandigarh to compile a study. As per World Health Organization, (WHO), a carbon footprint is the measure if the impact created by people’s activities on the amount of CO2 generated by buring of fossil fuels. It is expressed in terms of weight of carbon dioxide in tonnes.

Topic 19: India’s New Mapping Policy

On 15 February 2021, the Government of India announced changes to the country’s mapping policy by liberalising regulations on geospatial data and maps. It is in line with India’s vision of Atmanirbhar Bharat and a 5 trillion-dollar economy.  The existing regime imposed significant restrictions on the Indian mapping industry– from creation to dissemination of maps, requiring the Indian mapping companies to go through a cumbersome system of pre-approvals and permissions to get licences. 

Topic 20: Draft National Policy on Migrant Workers 

NITI Aayog has launched first migrant policy draft. It enables to vote, map skill, inter-state teams. As per NITI Aayog, the Government’s goal must be to provide a limited approach. This means ‘Don’t give the boy a fish, rather teach him fishing’. The Government must not provide permanent or social aids to migrant workers rather create opportunities for them. This act was subsumed in the Occupational Safety Health and Working Conditions Code, 2020.

UPSC (IAS) Prelims 2021: Subject wise Important Current Affairs Topic

Science & Technology

Topic 1: Banana Grit

The Council of Scientific & Industrial Research’s National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Pappanamcode have developed a new product, Banana Grit or Granules. It is developed from Nendran bananas which are raw in nature. It has been produced after years of research on the Nendran variety of Banana helping it to open up a new segment of application for banana rich in starch. The concept is to utilize the resistant starch of the banana to its maximum strength.

Topic 2: Akash Missile

To increase the defence export, the Central Government has given its nod to the export of Akash missile which is indigenous defence artillery that is Made in India. This would help India to achieve the target of $5 billion in defence exports. It would also help in improving strategic relations with friendly countries.

Topic 3: National Mission on Quantum Technologies and Applications (NMQTA)

Last year the finance minister had set aside 8000 crore Indian Rupees to support the development of a National Mission on Quantum Technology. Quantum Technologies & Applications is one of the 9 missions of national importance, under Prime Minister’s Science and Technology Innovation Advisory Council (PM-STIAC). It runs through the Principal Scientific Advisor’s office to contribute to scientific research for India’s sustainable development.

Topic 4: India’s first Remote Monitoring System for Oil Refineries

A remote monitoring centre has been established for Indian Oil Corporation in Hyderabad. Indian Oil Corporation happens to be the country’s largest fuel retailer. It recently launched India’s first remote monitoring system for oil refineries’ turbines. It would be managing and analysing the operational data from 27 gas turbines at 8 Indian Oil Corporation refineries in India. This technology generally referred to as Proactive Predictive Analytics-based Automated Anomaly Detection would only allow monitoring of the Gas Turbine Operational Data that flew in digitally from 27 turbines of the eight Indian Oil refineries round-the-clock in Hyderabad.

Topic 5: National Atomic Timescale

On 4 January 2021, Prime Minister Narendra Modi inaugurated and dedicated the National Atomic Timescale and Bhartiya Nirdeshak Dravya Pranali to the Nation and laid the Foundation Stone of National Environmental Standards Laboratory at the National Meteorology Conclave through a video conference.  With the inauguration of National Atomic Timescale, India became Atma Nirbhar or self-reliant in measuring the time within the range of a nanosecond with an accuracy level of 2.8 Nanosecond. Now, Indian Standard Time matches the International Standard Time with the accuracy range of fewer than 3 nanoseconds.

Topic 6: Vanadium Discovered in Arunachal Pradesh

Geological Survey of India, GSI has found reserves of Vanadium in Arunachal Pradesh. It is a very rare, hard, silvery grey element with ductile and malleable properties and good structural strength. About Vanadium: It is found in more than 60 different minerals/ores that include vanadinite, carnotite, roscoelite and patronite. It was discovered by Spanish mineralogist Andreas Manuel del Rio. He named it Erythronium but thought that it was just an impure version of chromium. In the periodic table, it is symbolised as VThe colour of the element is silver and it has great structural strength.It is listed as a transition metal which means it is a very good conductor of heat and electricity. 

Topic 7: Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Control Centre launched by ISRO

ISRO SSA Control Centre was formally inaugurated on December 14, 2020, by Dr K Sivan who is the Chairman, ISRO/Secretary, DOS. It was established due to the need to set up a state-of-the-art facility dedicated to SSA activities on par with international agencies. Significance: The dedicated control centre is for the SSA’s work is being done under project NETRA, called Network for space object Tracking and Analysis.  ISRO has been conducting many space situational analysis works for past many decades. This is why SSA was needed. Space is being crowded with many old satellites, debris etc, which is why project NETRA was started.
Environment & Ecology

Topic 1: India’s first Pollinator Park 

In a bid to conserve pollinators, India’s first ‘Pollinator Park’ opened in Uttarakhand’s Haldwani (Nanital district) on 29 December 2020 and is spread over 4 acres of land. Uttarakhand Forest Department dedicated the newly built Pollinator Park to the Public. The endemic species of honeybee ‘Apiscerana Indica’ have also been reared in the park. 

Topic 2: Flue Gas Desulphurisation

Desulphurization is the removal of Sulphur Dioxide. The flue gas desulphurisation plants remove sulphur dioxides from the flue gas which is produced by boilers, furnaces, and other sources. Power Ministry of India has proposed to dismiss or push back the deadlines for adoption of new emission norms by coal-fired power plants, saying “an unworkable time schedule” that would burden utilities and lead to an increase in power tariffs. 

Topic 3: ‘Green Tax’ on vehicles in India

In a bid to curb the pollution in the country, the Union Minister for Road Transport and Highways Nitin Gadkari has approved a proposal to levy a ‘Green Tax’ on old vehicles on 25 January 2021.  Highlights: 1- Transport vehicles older than eight years to be charged at the rate of 10-25% of Road Tax at the time of renewal of ‘Fitness Certificate’. 

2- Personal vehicles to be charged at the time of renewal of ‘Registration Certification’ after 15 years.

3- Public transport vehicles such as city buses to be charged lower Green Tax. 

4- The vehicles registered in highly polluted cities to be charged higher Green Tax (50% of the Road Tax). 

5- The Green Tax will be differential and will depend on fuel such as petrol, diesel and type of vehicle. 
History & Indian Heritage

Topic 1: New Anubhava Mantapa

The Chief Minister of Karnataka laid the foundation of the New Anubhava Mantapa in Basavakalyan recently. It is the place where 12th-century poet-philosopher, Basaveshwara lived his whole life. New Anubhava Mantapa, would be a six-floor structure on 7.5-acre plot and represents various principles of Basaveshwara. Read more about the temple features.

Topic 2: Sulawesi Cave Painting

Animal Painting found on the wall of Leang Bulu’Sipong 4 cave in the south of Sulawesi in Indonesia is at least 44,000 years old and is claimed to be the world’s oldest story. The painting depicts a buffalo being hunted by part-human, part-animal creatures holding spears and ropes and wild pigs.  As per researchers, the scene could be the world’s oldest-recorded story. The findings were presented in the journal Nature by archaeologists from Griffith University in Brisbane, Australia.
Geography

Topic 1: Khazan Farming System

This type of farming is practiced in estuarine parts of a geographical area. In India, it is practiced in Goa’s estuarine system. The Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary happens to be Goa’s smallest protected area. It, like many low-lying floodplains of Goa, is used as an estuarine agricultural system called Khazan farming. The system is now under a state of decay. 

Topic 2: Bodhghat Hydro Power Project

Bodhghat Project is a multipurpose hydro project in Chhattisgarh to which the centre has given its consent.  In May 2020, the central government provided its consent to begin the first phase of this project which is the survey. It is being undertaken by the state government of Chhattisgarh. It had been in the pipeline since last 40 years. 

Topic 3: Longitudinal Ageing Study of India (LASI)

Minister of Health & Family Welfare has released the Longitudinal Ageing Study of India also called LASI Wave-1 Report recently. This is a national survey of scientific investigation of health, consequences, economic and social determinants related to the ageing of the population of India. The data collected on health and biomarkers together with information family and social network, income, assets and consumption.
Polity & International News

Topic 1:  India’s ‘Double Fish Hook’ Strategy

‘Double Fish Hook’ strategy is a speculated maritime strategy of India, along with ‘Necklace of Diamonds’ strategy to counter China’s ‘String of Pearls’ strategy.  India’s ‘Double Fish Hook’ strategy is expected to complement the fish hook strategy undertaken by the United States and its allies in the Pacific Ocean. Also, India is looking forward to upgrading the facilities in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands to project its power in the Bay of Bengal and nearby Malacca Straits.

Topic 2: Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)

Gulf leaders signed a “solidarity and stability” agreement which would lead to ending the diplomatic rift with Qatar. This deal was signed in the GCC Summit held in Saudi Arabia. This accord emphasizes Gulf, Arab and Islamic solidarity as well as stability. It speaks for the enhancement fo friendly ties between countries and people. All members of GCC had signed a deal to remove the sanctions over Qatar and re-open their land sea and airline borders to Qatar. 

Topic 3: Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) Project

The Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) is a gravity dam on the Blue Nile river in the Benishangul-Gumuz Region of Ethiopia and is under construction since 2011. On 3 January 2020, Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan agreed to resume their yearslong negotiations over the controversial building of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam hydropower project. This comes six weeks after Sudan boycotted last round of discussions.

Topic 4: India’s first Social Impact Bond (SIB)

In a maiden innovative move on civic terrain, the Pimpri Chinchwad Municipal Corporation (PCMC) in Maharashtra’s Pune district signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) India to co-create India’s first Social Impact Bond (SIB). As part of this unique investment tool, the PCMC administration will only have to bear the costs of a public welfare project associated with the bond, if the pre-defined project targets are fulfilled.
Government Schemes

Topic 1: Entrepreneurship Skill Development Programme (ESDP)

It is an entrepreneurship scheme that nurtures the talent of youth by enlightening them on several aspects of industrial or commercial activity that are required for setting up MSEs.  Objective: The main objective behind the scheme is to motivate youth representing various sections of the society like SC/ST/Women, differently-abled, Ex-servicemen, and BPL persons to consider self-employment or entrepreneurship as one of the career options. 

Topic 2: Rooftop Solar Scheme

The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy has recently released an advisory of the rooftop solar scheme. The major objective is to generate solar power through the installation of solar panels on the roof of the houses. Also, the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy has announced the implementation of Phase 2 of the grid-connected Rooftop Solar Scheme. The aim of the scheme is to achieve the final capacity of 40,000 MW from Rooftop Solar Projects by 2022. 

UPSC (IAS) Prelims 2021: Subject wise Important Current Affairs Topic

Science & Technology

Topic 1: Cryogenic Technology

Cryogenic means low temperature. The word itself refers to the technology of sub-zero temperatures. Cryogenic engines use liquid oxygen as the oxidizer and liquid hydrogen as the fuel. As it is known Oxygen can be kept in the liquid state below – 183 degrees Celcius, while hydrogen requires temperature below – 253 degree Celcius to be in liquid form. Since liquid oxygen is extremely reactive and combustible it can be used as a propellant to carry heavy loads. Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) has delivered the biggest cryogenic propellant tank (C32 LH2) made by it to the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) recently.

Topic 2: Brain Fingerprinting

Brain Electrical Oscillation Signature Profiling (BEOSP) is a method of interrogation where the suspect’s participation in the crime is investigated by studying the brain’s response. The suspect is then shown visuals or audio clips related to the case to check if there is any triggering of neurons (P300-MERMER) in the suspect’s brain which then generate brainwaves. The test results are then studied to determine the participation of the accused in a crime.

Topic 3: Hayabusa 2 Mission

Hayabusa 2 is a Japanese spacecraft that is bringing back a lot of samples from Ryugu. The impactor hit the asteroid’s surface and make a small crater several metres in diameter allowing fresh material to be exposed. After collecting samples, Hayabusa 2 then headed home in November 2019, releasing the capsule from an altitude of about 200 km on 5 November 2020 when it returned to Earth via parachute. 

Topic 4: Loon Internet Balloon

Loon’s internet-beaming balloon has recently set a new flight duration record. It made the longest balloon flight in the Stratosphere for 312 days.  Loons are high altitude balloons that provide internet to remote areas. It is the third layer of connectivity ecosystem to help places with minimum reach receive connectivity with the rest of the world. These balloons that reach the stratosphere and provide internet connections to regions that were once thought unservable. 

Topic 5: China’s Artificial Sun

China successfully activated its “artificial sun,” which is a nuclear fusion reactor that grants the country with fuel for years to come. China’s Atomic Energy Authority tested its HL-2M Tokamak reactor for the first time on Friday, December 4, 2020. The development of nuclear fusion energy would lead to solving China’s energy requirements. 

Topic 6: Public Wi-Fi Access Network Interface (PM-WANI)

The Union Cabinet led by PM Modi has approved the setting up of public Wi-Fi networks across the length and breadth of the country on December 9, 2020. Know more about it below The public Wi-Fi network service is to be called as PM Wi-Fi Access Network Interface or WANI scheme. It would be set up by the public data office aggregators or PDOAs and would provide Wi-Fi service through the public data offices or PDO’s. No license fee will be charged for providing broadband internet services. 

Topic 7: Solar Wind Hack

A large chunk of US government emails has been targeted in a hack thought to have been carried out by Russia as reported by the American media. This has been the biggest ever targeted cyber attacks in the United States of America. 
History & Heritage 

Topic 1: World Heritage Irrigation Sites (WHIS)

International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage, ICID is a global network of irrigation, drainage, and flood management experts. This year four sites in India have received the World Heritage Irrigation Structure (WHIS) tag.  Cumbum Tank, Andhra PradeshKurnool-Cuddapah Canal, Andhra PradeshPorumamilla Tank (Anantharaja Sagaram), Andhra PradeshDhampur Lake in Maharashtra’s Sindhudurg

Topic 2: “Adopt a Heritage: Apni Dharohar Apni Pehchan” Project

Adopt a Heritage, Apni Dharohar Apni Pehchan scheme was launched 27th September 2017, which also was World Tourism Day.  The ministries involved in the project are: Ministry of TourismMinistry of Culture and Archaeological Survey of India, ASI State/UTs Governments Under the project, 27 Memorandum of Understandings (MoUs) has been awarded to 12 Monument Mitras for 25 sites and 2 technological interventions across India.
Environment & Ecology

Topic 1: India’s first Moss Garden

The first moss garden of India has been set up in Lingadhar village, Khurpatal area of Nainital, Uttarakhand. It is built in the area of around half a hectare. Just as grass garden consists of grass, a moss garden has mosses instead of grass. The mosses are squishy and they can compress without facing any damages. These gardens can thus be easily walked on without being damaged and also do not require annual replacement.

Topic 2: Hydroponics

Hydroponics is a type of horticulture or better we can say it’s a type of hydroculture where plants are grown without the use of soil in mineral-rich water (aqueous solvent). There are various sources from which nutrients can be extracted and provided to the plants. These are fish excreta, duck manure, and many other animal-based nutrient sources.
Economics

Topic 1: Municipal Bond

Municipal Bond is a debt instrument issued by municipal corporations or associated bodies in India. The funds raised through these bonds are utilized by the local government bodies to finance socio-economic development projects.  Why in news? On 2 December 2020, Lucknow Municipal Corporation (LMC) bonds became the first Municipal Bonds from North India to be listed on Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE). The listing ceremony was attended by Uttar Pradesh’s Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath.
Political & International News

Topic 1: Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)

India hosted the SCO Heads of Government Summit on 30 November 2020 for the first time since it joined the grouping in the year 2017.  1- The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) is a permanent international intergovernmental organization which is headquartered in Beijing, China. 2- It is a Eurasian political, economic and security organisation aiming to maintain peace, security and stability in the region. 7- The organization has two permanent members– the SCO Secretariat (Beijing) and the Executive Committee of the Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure (RATS) (Tashkent).

Topic 2: Pardon Bribery Scheme

Why in News? The US Justice Department has been investigating a bribery scheme directing money to officials in the White House, Washington DC, in exchange for the presidential pardon or commutation. The court has released a few documents supporting the same alleged bribes.  As per the documents released by the US District Court, they are investigating a “bribery conspiracy scheme in which [redacted] would offer a substantial political contribution in exchange for a presidential pardon or reprieve of sentence for [redacted]”.

Topic 3: SIPRI Report 2020

SIPRI stands for Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. It is situated in the capital of Sweden, Stockholm. It provides the data analysis and recommendations regarding armed conflict, military expenditure and arms trade. It also makes suggestions for disarmament and arms control.
Important Dates of December 2020

Topic 1: World AIDS Day 2020

World AIDS Day 2020: It is observed on 1 December to spread awareness about HIV epidemic, speak out against HIV stigma, and call for an increased response to move toward ending HIV. – The theme for 2020 is “Ending the HIV/AIDS Epidemic: Resilience and Impact”.

Topic 2: Indian Navy Day

ndian Navy played a crucial role during the Indo-Pakistan war of 1971 and started Operation Trident. To commemorate the attack and to accomplish the role of Naval force every year, Navy Day is celebrated on 4 December. The Indian Navy is a well balanced three-dimensional force, capable of operating above, on and under the surface of the oceans and safeguard our national interests. Its objective is also to improve its circumstances in the Indian Ocean Zone. The theme of Navy Day 2020 is “Indian Navy Combat Ready, Credible & Cohesive”.

Topic 3: Armed Forces Flag Day 

Armed Forces Flag Day is celebrated on 7 December to honour the martyrs and the men in uniform and also dedicated to collecting funds from people for the welfare of the Armed Forces personnel. The fund collection is managed by the local arms of the Kendriya Sainik Board in India, which is a part of the Ministry of Defense. It is controlled by the managing committee and monitored by both the official and non-official voluntary organizations.

Topic 4: International Civil Aviation Day

It is observed on 7 December to raise awareness about the importance of the role played by the organisation of the International Civil Aviation in air transport. Let us tell you that the International Civil Aviation Organisation is a UN body that takes care of international standards for aviation safety. This day marked as a global observance and not a public holiday.

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