Rajasthan, state of northwestern India, located in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. It is bounded to the north and northeast by the states of Punjab and Haryana, to the east and southeast by the states of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, to the southwest by the state of Gujarat, and to the west and northwest by the provinces of Sindh and Punjab in Pakistan.
The capital city is Jaipur, in the east-central part of the state. Rajasthan has deep historical roots with sites of ancient Indus Valley Civilization (Kalibangan), Vedic Civilization being located in the state.
During medieval times, the province reached its glory being witness to many decisive wars and tales of bravery and sacrifice available from every corner of the state. Prithvi Raj Chouhan, Maharana Pratap from the place are not just local heroes but heroes revered in every part of India and famous world-wide. Rajasthan is the largest state by area in India. It is located on the western side of the country, located between 23 30’ and 30 11’ North latitude and 69 29’ and 78 17’ East longitude.
It shares international border with Pakistan and with 5 other states of India including Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. The Aravalli (Aravali) Range forms a line across the state running roughly from Guru Peak on Mount Abu (5,650 feet [1,722 meters]), near the town of Abu in the southwest, to the town of Khetri in the northeast. About three-fifths of the state lies northwest of that line, leaving the remaining two-fifths in the southeast. Those are the two natural divisions of Rajasthan.
The northwestern tract is generally arid and unproductive, although its character shifts gradually from desert in the far west and northwest to comparatively fertile and habitable land toward the east. The region includes the Thar (Great Indian) Desert.
The modern state was formed on 30 March 1949 when Rajputana was merged into the Dominion of India. Its capital and largest city is Jaipur, which is also known as Pink City. Other important cities are Jodhpur, Kota, Udaipur, Bikaner and Ajmer.
Geographically, the state is dominated by stretches of Thar Desert and the Aravalli Range. While, the Thar Desert occupies the most of the northwestern portion of state, the Aravalli’s serve as climate divide running from southwest to northeast, almost from one end to the other restricting the growth and dominance of desert.
It is is also home to three national tiger reserves, the Ranthambore National Park in Sawai Madhopur, Mukundra Hill Tiger Reserve in Kota and Sariska Tiger Reserve in Alwar.
The southeastern area lies at a somewhat higher elevation (330 to 1,150 feet [100 to 350 meters]) than its northwestern counterpart; it also is more fertile and has a more-diverse topography. The hilly tract of Mewar lies in the southern region, while a broad plateau stretches across the southeast. In the northeast a rugged badlands region follows the line of the Chambal River. Farther north, the landscape levels out into flat plains that are part of the alluvial basin of the Yamuna River.
The Aravallis form Rajasthan’s most-important watershed. To the east of the range, the Chambal River—the only large and perennial stream in the state—and other waterways generally drain toward the northeast. The principal tributary of the Chambal, the Banas River, rises in the Aravallis near the great Kumbhalgarh hill fort and collects all the drainage of the Mewar plateau. Farther north, the Banganga, after rising near Jaipur, flows east toward the Yamuna before disappearing. The Luni is the only significant river west of the Aravallis.
It rises near the city of Ajmer in central Rajasthan and flows some 200 miles (320 km) west-southwest into the Rann of Kachchh in Gujarat state. Northeast of the Luni basin is an area of internal drainage characterized by salt lakes, the largest of which is Sambhar Salt Lake. Farther to the west lies the true Marusthali (“Land of the Dead”), the barren wastelands and areas of sand dunes that form the heart of the Thar Desert.
Hindi is the official language of the state, and to some degree it has overshadowed the local languages of Rajasthan. Much of the state’s population, however, continues to speak Rajasthani languages, which comprise a group of Indo-Aryan languages and dialects derived from Dingal, a tongue in which bards once sang of the glories of their masters. The four main Rajasthani language groups are Marwari in western Rajasthan, Jaipuri or Dhundhari in the east and southeast, Malvi in the southeast, and in the northeast Mewati, which shades off into Braj Bhasa (a Hindi dialect) toward the border with Uttar Pradesh.
Mahajanapadas of Rajasthan
- Capital: – Viratnagar
- Present: – Alwar, Bharatpur and Jaipur
- Saurasena (Brajmandala)
- Capital: – Mathura
- Present: – Alwar, Bharatpur, Dhaulpur and Karauli.
- Capital: – Indraprastha (Delhi)
- Present: – Delhi and northern region of Rajasthan.
- Some Other Janapada Of Rajasthan
- Capital: – Madhyamika (Present name Nagari)
- Present region: – Chittorgarh And Udaipur district
- Rajasthan’s first excavated site.
- Excavated by D.R. Bhandarkar.
- Present Alwar and Bharatpur district.
- They emerged as political power during Sunga Period.
- Present Jaipur and Tonk district.
- Capital: – Nagar (Tonk)
- They are mentioned in Mahabhashya of Patanjali
- Present Hanumangarh and Ganganagar district.
- Kushana power was stopped by them.
- They are mentioned in Ashtadhyayi and Ganapatha of Panini.
- Present Alwar district.
- Present Jodhpur and Bikaner region.